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View Full Version : Who was armed with what (at a few battles) ?



buckandball
10-24-2008, 10:20 PM
Greetings all,

Yes, the topic line is very broad… I am seeking information regarding how regiments were armed at a few battles. Specifically, I am seeking a “who was armed with what” at:

1st Manassas
Shiloh
Antietam
Gettysburg
Franklin

I know this may be a significant task on my part; trying to take each side’s order of battle and determine each regiment’s predominant armament. This is specific to smoothbores vs. rifled muskets. I’ll post more as I get the orders of battle together. But if you know with certainty (if you can reference, all the better) how a regiment was armed, please remark.

This is not for any profit or gain on my part. I am seeking this as part of a paper I am writing, arguing a point while I am a student here at the Marine Corps Expeditionary Warfare School. While the other 239 Captains in my class are writing on important modern issues facing the USMC and country, I talked the powers that be into letting me write about a Civil War topic.

Out of totally curiosity I was thinking about casualty rates at a few battles, average engagement ranges, and armaments (based on smoothbores verses rifled muskets). I had just reread the 1856 Ordnance study and was looking at accuracy effects and probability of hit issues. This lead to a conversation with a few other history enthusiasts and academic minded Marines while we were walking Antietam during a battle study last month. I now plan to critically debate some causal factors of high casualty rates from the standpoint that it wasn’t all just a result of the minie ball and rifled musket (as popularly taught). There are many layers to peel on this onion, but for starters, I am trying to baseline my position by learning who was armed with what and when…

Any and all information or a steer where to find it (aside from trying to read every regimental history) is appreciated.

Regards

fortdonelsonrelics
10-25-2008, 12:53 AM
Well,

At least for Illinois troops, a comprehensive book would be 'Arming the Suckers'.

John Walsh

dirtyshirt
10-25-2008, 01:44 AM
My friend,I believe you are plunging into a very gray area. I applaud your enthusiasm, and am anxious to see your conclusions which I hope are posted here. However, yourself as a Marine and future combat veteran, there are so many variables in this topic that must be accounted for, and at the same time are no reliable means of calculating them all. The human factor is such an incredible thing. Good luck!

lukegilly13
10-25-2008, 09:51 AM
Here's a thought.....of each of the battlefields you listed, try calling the parks. See if they have a collection of weapons that were recovered from the battlefield. Now, as this is by no means an exactly science, it at least lets you know that the weapon was there sometime...or at least as far as they know it was found there. I know Gettysburg and Manassas have well documented collections. Although records are not fantastic, it is sometimes possible to prove at least he origin of the gun (which sounds like it would be the type info you are looking for...not interested so much in who had it but just what side). Another thing that might help is to go onto the library of congress and see if you can find any images that include firearms. Of course, this again is not an exact science as lots of death images were posed and rifles placed with soldiers that originally did not have them. But again, if the rifles were there to place into the picture....
There are several folks on here MUCH more knowledgeable than I....i'm sure some will post soon!

fedguy
10-25-2008, 10:14 AM
I have some info on the 79th NYSM, the "Cameron Highlanders", who were at both 1st Bull Run and Antietam. According to the Regimental History, the 79th left New York with their militia arms, which were described as old flintlocks converted to percussion. Though the historian doesn't specifiy which model, one of the recreated units identifies them as converted 1816 Springfields. At least we can be sure they were .69 caliber smoothbores. The 79th was to turn them in and be issued new rifles when they mustered in, but what they were given was described in the History as the same muskets but in much poorer condition. This would seem to me to support the 1816 Springfield claim, since the Gov't issued a slew of these in the early war period. These muskets were carried by the Reg't until the fall of Vicksburg, when they were rearmed with captured Confederate Enfields. Hope this is of some use!

LWhite64
10-25-2008, 10:42 AM
Ben,
Let me recommend that you get the new book by Earl Hess, The Rifled Musket in Civil War Combat: Reality and Myth. Also, in regards to Franklin, its going to be almost all Rifled Muskets and Rifles, with some repeaters on the Federal side.

Lee

markj
10-25-2008, 12:13 PM
Read and heed:

http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1995/winter/civil-war-arms-and-equipment-4.html

Yours, &c.,

Mark Jaeger

buckandball
10-25-2008, 12:24 PM
Thanks for the reference recommendations.

Well aware of the depth and uphill battle on this one. Hence why I posed it here while I pursue multiple avenues.

Brandon, your remarks are quite in support of the premise of my argument. It is not based on weapon type. I am familiar with the peculiarities and myriad of variables in topics like this, especially the human element, which is the significant factor. And this is not meant to be a final word on anything, just an approach to a topic. In fact, this is probably an impossible subject to give even remote due attention to with the small time I have to do it. This could be years of postgraduate level research stuff for a book... But none the less...

Again, if anyone can provide either recommendations for reference material or actual info on regiments they have researched, it will be deeply appreciated. I am quite aware of the magnitude of this approach.

Regards

Ben

Curt Schmidt
10-25-2008, 12:58 PM
Hallo!

A snippet of what Ohio troops had in 1862:


Ohio Executive Documents

Annual Report of the Quartermaster General to the Governor of the State of Ohio for the year 1862. Columbus, Richard Nevins, State Printer, 1863

Report of the Superintendent of Arsenal

Total arms issued to Ohio troops.

The following tables exhibit the total number of arms issued to Ohio volunteers, now in service, who have received arms through this department:

Artillery

First Regiment, Col. Jas. Barnett, consisting of twelve batteries-
46 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled, 3.80 inch.
16 6 pounder bronze field guns, smoothbore.
2 12 pounder bronze howitzers.
8 6 pounder steel rifle guns, "Waird's."
4 12 pounder steel rifle guns "Waird's."

1st Independent Battery, Capt McMullen-
2 6 pounder bronze field guns, smooth.
4 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled.

2d Independent Battery, Capt. Carlin-
4 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled.

3d Independent Battery, Capt. Williams-
2 6 pounder bronze field guns, smooth.
4 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled.

4th independent Battery, Capt. Hoffman-
Armed elsewhere.

5th Independent Battery, Capt. Hickenlooper-
2 6 pounder bronze field , smooth.
4 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled.

6th Independent Battery, Capt. Bradley-
Armed elsewhere.

7th Independent Battery, Capt. Burnap-
2 6 pounder bronze field guns, smooth.
4 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled.

8th Independent Battery, Capt. Markgraff-
Armed elsewhere.

9th Independent Battery, Capt. Whetmore-
Armed by United States direct.

10th Independent Battery, Capt. White-
2 6 pounder bronze field guns, smooth
4 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled.

11th Independent Battery, Capt. Constable, now Sands-
Armed elsewhere.

12th Independent Battery, Capt. Johnson-
4 6 pounder steel rifled guns, "Wiard's."
2 12 pounder steel rifled guns, "Wiard's."

13th Independent Battery, Capt. Myers-
2 6 pounder bronze field guns, smooth.
4 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled.

14th Independent Battery, Capt. Burrows-
4 6 pounder steel rifled guns, "Wiard's."
2 12 pounder steel rifled guns, "Wiard's."
Subequently issued to this battery-
2 12 pounder bronze field guns-model, 1857.
4 3 inch wrought iron guns, rifled.

15th Independent Battery, Capt. Spear-
Armed elsewhere.

16th Independent Battery, Capt. Mitchell-
2 6 pounder bronze field guns, smooth.
4 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled.

17th Independent Battery, Capt. Blount-
6 6 pounder bronze field guns, rifled.

18th Independent Battery, Capt. Aleshire-
6 3 inch wrought iron guns, rifled.

19th Independent Battery, Capt. Shields-
6 12 pounder bronze field guns, pat., 1857.

20th Independent Battery, Capt. Smithnight-
2 12 pounder bronze field guns, pat., 1857.
4 3 inch wrought iron guns, rifled.

Cavalry

1st Regiment-
658 Sharp's carbines.
1,090 Colt's pistols.
93 Remington pistols.
1,210 light Cavalry sabres.

2nd Regiment-
100 Joslyn carbines.
700 Starr's pistols.
500 Remington pistols.
1,200 light Cavalry sabres.

3rd Regiment-
100 Joslyn's carbines.
650 Remington's pistols.
50 Whitney's pistols.
1,200 sabres.

4th Regiment-
100 Joslyn carbine
(Received remainder of its armament direct from United States.)

5th Regiment-
120 Sharp's carbines
675 Joslyn's pistols.
1,200 light Cavalry sabres.
(This regiment has lately received a full supply of Burnside's carbines direct from the United States.)

6th Regiment-
250 Joslyn's carbines.
71 Colt's pistols
324 Joslyn's pistols.
760 light Cavalry sabres.

7th Regiment-
400 Gallager's carbines.
1000 Remington's pistols.
200 Whitney's pistols.
1,200 light Cavalry sabres.

1st Squadron-
186 Sharp's carbines.
184 Remington's pistols.
164 light Cavalry sabres.

2d Independent Battalion-
100 Gallager's carbines
300 remington pistols
400 light Cavalry sabres

Infantry

1st OVI - 200 Enfield rifle muskets, 740 Prussian rifles, 69 cal. Subsequent issue of 740 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal.
2nd OVI - 800 U.S. rifles, 69 cal; 180 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
3rd OVI - 682 U.S. percussion muskets, 180 Enfield rifle muskets.
4th OVI - 769 U.S. percussion muskets, 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
5th OVI - 608 U.S. altered to percussion muskets, 190 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 950 Saxony rifle muskets.
6th OVI - 580 U.S. percussion muskets, 120 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 752 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal.
7th OVI - 800 U.S. percussion muskets, 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
8th OVI - 80 U.S. percussion muskets, 576 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal., 180 Enfield rifle muskets.
9th OVI - 500 U.S. percussion muskets, 350 Springfield rifle muskets.
10th OVI - 809 U.S. percussion muskets, 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
11th OVI - 555 U.S. altered to percussion muskets, 98 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal, 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
12th OVI - 984 U.S. altered to percussion muskets. Subsequent issue of 900 Saxony rifle muskets, 69 cal.
13th OVI - 800 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal., 190 Enfield rifle muskets.
14th OVI - 1000 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal.
15th OVI - 730 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal., 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
16th OVI - 980 Vincennes rifles, sabre bayonet.
17th OVI - 784 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal., 196 Enfield rifle muskets.
18th OVI - 720 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal., 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
19th OVI - 660 Pondir rifle muskets, 69 cal., 200 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 80 Enfield rifle muskets.
20th OVI - 750 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal., 200 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
21st OVI - 800 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal., 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
22nd OVI - No record
23rd OVI - 385 U.S. percussion muskets, 560 U.S. altered to percussion muskets, 187 Enfield rifle muskets.
24th OVI - 840 altered to percussion muskets, 212 Enfield rifle muskets.
25th OVI - 800 altered to percussion muskets, 200 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 900 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
26th OVI - 800 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal, 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
27th OVI - 760 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 190 Enfield rifle muskets
28th OVI - Not listed
29th OVI - 780 Pondir's rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets
30th OVI - 800 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets
31st OVI - 790 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 195 Enfield rifle muskets.
32nd OVI - 800 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
33rd OVI - 700 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
34th OVI - 800 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal and 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
35th OVI - 800 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
36th OVI - 753 U.S. percusion muskets and 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
37th OVI - 485 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal., 180 Springfield rifle muskets, and 180 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 100 Enfield rifle muskets.
38th OVI - 750 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
39th OVI - 800 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
40th OVI - 760 Pondir's rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
41st OVI - 680 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
42nd OVI - 980 French rifles, 57 cal.
43rd OVI - 950 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 15 Enfield rifle muskets.
44th OVI - 760 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 917 Enfield rifle muskets.
45th OVI - 900 Springfield rifle muskets.
46th OVI - 700 Prussian smoothbore muskets (subsequent issue of 888 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.) and 200 Enfield rifle muskets. (Subsequent issue of 300 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.)
47th OVI - 800 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 200 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
48th OVI - 816 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
49th OVI - 700 U.S. rifle muskets, 69 cal. and 180 Enfield rifle muskets.
50th OVI - No record
51st OVI - 703 US rifle muskets, .69 cal., 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
52nd OVI - 940 Springfield rifle muskets
53rd OVI - 888 Austrian rifle muskets, .54 cal.
54th OVI - 600 Pondir muskets, .69 cal.
55th OVI - 586 Pondir rifle muskets, cal 69, 380 Enfield rifle muskets.
56th OVI - 700 Saxony rifle muskets, 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
57th OVI - 840 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal., 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
58th OVI - 551 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal, 429 Enfield rifle muskets.
59th OVI - 200 Enfield rifle muskets, Remainder of issue to this regiment made in the field.
60th OVI - No record
61st OVI - 771 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal
62nd OVI - 780 Pondir's rifle musket, 69 cal, 200 Enfield rifle musket.
63rd OVI - 864 Austrian rifle musket, 54 cal.
64th OVI - Armed by War Department direct
65th OVI - Armed by War Department direct
66th OVI - 704 Pondir's rifle musket, 69 cal
67th OVI - 620 Prussian smoothbore muskets, 360 Enfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 828 Saxony rifle muskets, 69 cal.
68th OVI - 980 Enfield rifle muskets
69th OVI - 980 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
70th OVI - 264 Austrian rifle muskets, remainder of issue to this regiment made in the field.
71st OVI - 850 French rifle muskets, 70 cal., Subsequent issue of 250 French rifle muskets, 70 cal.
72nd OVI - 780 Enfield rifle muskets.
73rd OVI - 980 Enfield rifle muskets.
74th OVI - 780 Prussian rifle muskets, 69 cal., 200 Enfield rifle muskets.
75th OVI - 900 Enfield rifle muskets.
76th OVI - 980 French rifle muskets, 69 cal. Subsequent issue of 800 Springfield rifle muskets.
77th OVI - Armed in the field
78th OVI - 900 Enfield rifle muskets
79th OVI - 720 Springfield rifle muskets
80th OVI - 900 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
81st OVI - 600 Enfield rifle muskets
82nd OVI - 980 Enfield rifle muskets
83rd OVI - 980 Enfield rifle muskets
84th OVI - 88th OVI - No record
89th OVI - 940 Austrian rifle muskets, 58 cal.
90th OVI - 940 Enfield rifle muskets.
91st OVI - 950 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal
92nd OVI - 950 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
93rd OVI - 960 Springfield rifle muskets.
94th OVI - 940 Enfield rifle muskets.
95th OVI - 960 Springfield rifle muskets. Subsequent issue of 800 Enfield rifle muskets.
96th OVI - 940 Austrian rifle muskets, 58 cal.
97th OVI - 940 Enfield rifle muskets.
98th OVI - 920 Springfield rifle muskets.
99th OVI - 940 Enfield rifle muskets.
100th OVI - 950 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal. Subsequent issue of 920 Enfield rifle muskets.
101st OVI - 940 Austrian rifle muskets, 58 cal. Subsequent issue of 900 Springfield rifle muskets
102nd OVI - 940 Austrian rifle muskets, 58 cal. Subsequent issue of 900 Springfield rifle muskets.
103rd OVI - 940 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal. Subsequent issue of 900 Enfield rifle muskets.
104th OVI - 940 Austrian rifle muskets, 58 cal. Subsequent issue of 900 Enfield rifle muskets.
105th OVI - 960 Springfield rifle musket. Subsequent issue of 35 Springfield rifle muskets.
106th OVI - Armed at Camp Dennison with Austrian rifle muskets, 58 cal.
107th OVI - 959 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
108th OVI - Armed at Camp Dennison with Austrian rifle muskets, 58 cal.
109th OVI - No record.
110th OVI - 950 French rifle muskets, 71 cal. Subsequent issue of 900 Springfield rifle muskets.
111th OVI - 950 Springfield rifle muskets.
112th OVI - No record
113th OVI - 840 Enfield rifle muskets
114th OVI - 950 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal. Subsequent issue of 200 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
115th OVI - 950 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
116th OVI - 950 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
117th OVI - 920 French rifle muskets, 69 cal.
118th OVI - 875 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
119th OVI - No record
120th OVI - 950 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
121st OVI - 900 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
122nd OVI - 900 French rifle muskets, 71 cal. Subsequent issue of 900 Enfield rifle muskets.
123rd OVI - 980 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
124th OVI - 700 Springfield rifle muskets.
125th OVI - 600 Springfield rifle muskets.
126th OVI - 900 Austrian rifle muskets, 54 cal.
Hoffman's Battalion - 300 U.S. percussion muskets.
Governor's Guards - 288 Prussian smoothbore muskets.
Dennison Guards - 95 Prussian smoothbore muskets
Trumbull Guards - 98 U.S. percussion muskets.

Curt

James Brenner
10-25-2008, 01:11 PM
I'd recommend asking the parks about archaeological results, too. While you won't be able to tell who was armed with what, you may be able to get some rough ideas concerning the proportion of smoothbore to rlfled muskets used at each site.

Andrew Kasmar
10-25-2008, 01:48 PM
Hi,

I would also recommend that you look at what ammuntition was found on the battlefields, and also look what regiments where in the area.

Here is a list of a few regiments, and what they where armed with:

US 69th PA: British Enfields (at the time of Gettysburg)
US 24th Michigan: Austrian rifle muskets (at the time of Gettysburg)
US 22nd New York: British 2 band Enfields (1862)
CS 4th Missouri: Mississippi Rifles and Smoothbore muskets (1862). At Vicksburg the 4th was issue British Enfields.
US 28th Mass: British Enfields (1862)
US 69th New York: M1842 Springfields (1862)

Curt, thanks for posting that list!!!!!!! That is all really interesting.

Andrew

David Fox
10-25-2008, 02:32 PM
For the much-researched three days at Gettysburg there is a thin book "Ready, Aim, Fire" (which I can't presently lay my hands upon). Through research and recovered small arms projectiles, it traces weapons types utilized there.

LWhite64
10-25-2008, 03:01 PM
Although I cant lay my hands on it at the moment, in the old Confederate Veteran magazine there is actually a copy of the ammo expend report from Walthall's division at the Battle of Franklin.

Raymond
10-28-2008, 06:47 PM
On 1st Manassas the 1st Maryland Infantry, CSA, was armed with 500 'Mississippi rifles' (no bayonets) and three companies (about 220 men) with the 'improved Springfield musket' with bayonets.
The rifles came from North Carolina, the muskets from Richmond.
Some left their Springfield musket and took a rifled musket from the battlefield. What model that was, is unfortunately not described.

Source: Booth, G.W. "Recollections of a Maryland Soldier and Staff Officier..."

I hope this helps.

Raymond Rammeloo

Yellowhammer2
10-28-2008, 10:52 PM
You might want to check out or purchase the book "Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee" by Larry J. Daniel as a source for Ft. Donelson, Shiloh, and other early battles in the West. To quote an excerpt: "As late as the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, many of Johnston's regiments, such as the Sixth and Seventh Arkansas, were improperly equipped with sporting rifles, nondescript muskets, and flintlocks. When the Seventeenth Tennessee received some better arms, the colonel offered his old flintlocks to the Thirty-seventh Tennessee......................Some weeks after Shiloh, nearly 53 percent of A.P. Stewart's division still shouldered old smoothbore percussion muskets, and 103 had flintlocks. The Forty-seventh Tennessee had 10 different calibers in use." Hope this helps.


Yellowhammer Rifles
Blind Pig Mess

BrandonEnglish
10-29-2008, 10:54 AM
There is also a book out entitled Small Arms at Gettysburg, it's a good read and an indepth look at what units used what and how it affected the battle.

Michigan Infantry
10-30-2008, 11:10 AM
the 24th Michigan never had Austrain Rifles. The 2nd Wisconson was armed with those through most of the war. Other than that the rest of the Iron Brigade had Springfields.

Michigan Infantry
10-30-2008, 06:21 PM
The 24th Michigan was armed with 61 Springfields throught the war. The only regiment of that brigade (Iron Brigade) armed with the Austrian musket was the 2nd Wisconsin. And by most accounts they carried those from 1st Bull Run through Gettysburg, and some through the Grant's 64 Battles.

buckandball
11-02-2008, 09:41 PM
...many thanks...

Ben

LejeuneMarine
11-02-2008, 10:38 PM
Ben,
Great idea for a topic. How did you ever get the Maj to approve that one!? My topic is on a few contemporary issues dealing with the Sniper community in the Marine Corps. Seeing your post reminds me that I had better get to work. I hope you had a good time at the birthday ball last night. Good luck with your paper... don't forget we have an offense test in the morning.