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FortyRounder
08-05-2004, 12:41 AM
I'm researching the 14th New York Heavy Artillery and a possible ancestor who served in the unit. On July 30, 1864 the 14th was given the honor of leading the assault in what could have been a great victory for the Union cause.

In my humble, unscholarly opinion, one would have to search long and hard through the military annals of the United States to find a battle as grossly mismanaged as the "Petersburg Mine" or The Crater. From the last-minute decision to change the assault force from a specially-trained colored division to rather demoralized white troops, to the outrageous actions of Federal generals who hid in a bombproof and drank whiskey while their men were being slaughtered, this was indeed "the saddest affair I witnessed in the war" (in the words of U.S. Grant).

I would very much be interested in any eyewitness accounts of the Crater battle that any of you could provide. There is an article by a 14th New Yorker in "Battles and Leaders" but I was wondering if anybody here could direct me to some more primary sources. Thanks for your help.

FriendlyFire104
08-05-2004, 11:17 AM
There is a book called "the horrid Pit" the battle of the Crater, writtin by mike canvenhall(SP) and someone else, very good book on the crater.

Dignann
08-05-2004, 01:10 PM
Will,

For 14th NYHA references, you might check with your local library and see if you can get these titles through interlibrary loan:


Hodgkins, Samuel. Autobiography of Samuel Hodgkins . Compiled by Carrie E. Chatfield. (Minneapolis, Minn., 1923).

Kilmer, George Langdon. "Boys in the Union Army." Century Magazine , LXX (1905). pp 269-275.

Shaw, Charles A. A History of the 14th Regiment N.Y. Heavy Artillery in the Civil War from 1863 to 1865 . (Mt. Kisco, N.Y.: North Westchester Publishing Co., 1918).


For Crater refernces, check:


Cavanaugh, Michael A. and William Marvel. The Petersburg Campaign: The Battle of the Crater 'The Horrid Pit', June 25-August 6, 1864 . (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1989).

Cavanaugh and Marvel contains a very healthy bibliography with numerous published and unpublished primary sources referenced.

Eric

Ringgold
08-05-2004, 05:38 PM
Look for this in the manuscript collection of the Virginia Historical Society:


Ringler, John Wesley, Papers, 1864–1865. 16 items. Mss2R4735b.
Contain letters written by John Wesley Ringler ([b. 1844] while serving in Battery D of the Pennsylvania Independent Light Artillery [known as "Durrell's Battery"]) to his father, Israel Wilson Ringler, concerning John Ringler's life in the army during the Petersburg Campaign. Of particular note are his descriptions of the construction of the mine prior to the battle of the Crater and of the final Union assaults against Confederate lines southeast of Petersburg on 2 April 1865.

Please note that they have the unit's name misspelled. It is Durell's Battery, not Durrell's. AAARGH!

If you happen to get a copy of this, I would pay for your costs to send me a copy. I lost mine in one of my many hard drive crashes. It is a very good account written by a lad who was rather new to soldiering. Durell's Ringgold Battery, P.V. had a section in place in a close-by fort, and many of the lads were good friends with the boys of the 48th P.V.I., having served with them since the creation of the Ninth Army Corps.

Another source to check is the diary of Stephen (sp?) Minot Weld. It was published in a limited run, but any good library should have a copy. He was a very accomplished officer who seemed to be everywhere in the Eastern Theatre. He was, I believe, the colonel of the 56th Mass. and was involved in the attack after the mine explosion.

Also, a few books were written about the Petersburg Mine by the nephew of Henry Pleasants (the guy who is most responsible for its creation). Believe it or not, the nephew's name was Henry Pleasants! I was at an auction where they sold off most of his (the nephew's) stuff and there was an UNBELIEVABLE amount of mine items. All I managed to get were some minor (no pun intended) items and a manuscript copy of a book about the explosion that was later published after he joined forces with another writer. There isn't anything in it that could be considered earth-shattering. (pun intended)

God Bless the Fighting Ninth Corps!

BTW - I believe Ledlie and Ferraro were sipping something other than whiskey, but I can't recall the exact intoxicant at this moment. . .

Fod
08-06-2004, 11:24 AM
A friend of mine picked this up at a garage sale for ten cents. It's a folder titled "Two views of a Battle: The Crater" fascimile reprints of eyewitness accounts by Brig Gen Mahone (CS) and Lt James J. Chase, 32nd Maine. The reprint folder was apparently published by a sutler called "The General's Tailor, 107 South Main Street, Bel Air, Md 21014 ph 301-638-1955" I have no idea if they're still in existence.

The General's account is...well, a general's account. Good description of units' movements and things colonels did in defeating the attack.
Chase's account is a vivid, foot soldiers view, and captures the horror of being one of the troops caught in the pit.

Chase, a 17 year old Lt, by the way, took a ball through the head and was left blind by the action.

FortyRounder
08-07-2004, 09:21 PM
Many thanks. I found several Crater books including those mentioned here online at the Petersburg battlefield bookstore:
http://www.nps.gov/pete/mahan/oriobkPBRG.html

Rmhisteach
08-07-2004, 10:51 PM
Will,

I was pleasently suprised to read your post. My wife's grandfather William Williams was in co. M of the 14th New York Heavy Artillery. We have a certificate from the national tribune dated 1906 on our wall. From what I understand these were bought by soldiers as "proof " years after the war. I have little to research him or that unit. I would love to look at any links or info you are willing to share. I had no idea that this unit was at the crater.

FortyRounder
08-08-2004, 07:55 PM
Will,

I was pleasently suprised to read your post. My wife's grandfather William Williams was in co. M of the 14th New York Heavy Artillery. We have a certificate from the national tribune dated 1906 on our wall. From what I understand these were bought by soldiers as "proof " years after the war. I have little to research him or that unit. I would love to look at any links or info you are willing to share. I had no idea that this unit was at the crater.


That's very interesting because the fellow I'm researching was also in Co. M. Private George A. Ralph was captured, probably June 2, 1864 at Shady Grove, Va., and sent to Andersonville. He was later moved to a new prison at Florence, SC, where he died Dec 6 '64. I have a copy of a diary from a Co. M soldier being mailed to me from the Andersonville NHS collection.

Information on the 14th, especially "human interest" material, is rather hard to come by. I have gathered some stuff including the regimental history and articles from the Fredericksburg-Spotslyvania NBP collection. Petersburg, where the regiment saw most of its action, had nothing on them.

The Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System has a "regiments" link where you can get the basic facts on the 14th NYHA:
http://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/

This site has a few letters from 14th NY soldiers: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~snugaza/austin/

Rmhisteach
08-08-2004, 09:08 PM
Will, Thanks for the info. What info do you have on this co. M? I think that Mr. Williams was from Adams NY. When was the Regiment Mustered into Service? Keep Me updated .

FortyRounder
08-09-2004, 01:42 AM
Will, Thanks for the info. What info do you have on this co. M? I think that Mr. Williams was from Adams NY. When was the Regiment Mustered into Service? Keep Me updated .

According to civilwardata.com William H. Williams enlisted as a private in Adams, NY on Dec. 17 1863.

PMBwriter
08-16-2004, 02:31 AM
I highly recommend an obviously well-researched novel about this battle, The Crater, by Richard Slotkin. Slotkin was a professor of history at Wesleyan University in Middletown, CT. I think he may have passed away. Might want to contact the history dept. at WU to see if you can track down any colleagues/grad students who may have helped Slotkin research the book. I found a paperback edition available on Amazon.com, or you could try abebooks.com or half.com. Good luck. BTW, my ancestor was in the New York Rocket Battalion. His letters are at: http://home.earthlink.net/~pmbauer/pmb_home/acw_htm/acw_indx.htm.

Paul M. Bauer
South Salem, NY




I'm researching the 14th New York Heavy Artillery and a possible ancestor who served in the unit. On July 30, 1864 the 14th was given the honor of leading the assault in what could have been a great victory for the Union cause.

In my humble, unscholarly opinion, one would have to search long and hard through the military annals of the United States to find a battle as grossly mismanaged as the "Petersburg Mine" or The Crater. From the last-minute decision to change the assault force from a specially-trained colored division to rather demoralized white troops, to the outrageous actions of Federal generals who hid in a bombproof and drank whiskey while their men were being slaughtered, this was indeed "the saddest affair I witnessed in the war" (in the words of U.S. Grant).

I would very much be interested in any eyewitness accounts of the Crater battle that any of you could provide. There is an article by a 14th New Yorker in "Battles and Leaders" but I was wondering if anybody here could direct me to some more primary sources. Thanks for your help.

Rebelboy15
09-05-2004, 11:29 AM
Here is an account by Lt. James H. Clark of the 115th New York Volunteers of his experiance at the Battle of the Crater at Petersburg. This and the rest of his wartime service can be found at http://www.dmna.state.ny.us/historic/reghist/civil/infantry/115thInf/115thInfIronHeartedTitle.htm

Hope This Helps,

"On the evening of July 29th our division received marching orders, and after dark quietly moved to the rear of the 9th Corps, and lay on our arms until midnight. We then massed on a side-hill in front of the 9th Corps, and awaited the dawn of day, when a grand charge was to be made on the works on our front, in which the whole army was expected to take part.

One of the largest rebel forts was mined with several tons of powder, and when it blew up the Union army were to charge and drive the rebels from their works.

THE MORNING OF BATTLE.
July the thirtieth, 'sixty-four.--How well all who were engaged remember the scenes enacted on that eventful and bloody day; the swaths of dead; crushed and mangled limbs; the deathly palor on a thousand noble cheeks; the bravery, daring and inspiring devotion of the soldiery, and the awful roar and tempest of battle on the green hill-sides of Petersburg.

On that beautiful morning, when all nature was wreathed in smiles and loveliness, 20,000 Union soldiers awoke from their slumbers on the damp ground, hardly thinking that before the setting of the sun 5,000 of their number would either nobly die, lie bleeding in the hospital or on the battle-field, or a thousand times worse, be consigned to the loathsome horrors of southern dungeons and charnel houses. But thus it was.

What a grand and glorious sight it was to see those long, deep columns of blue, as they raised up into full view, with their guns and bayonets flashing in the sunlight. How proud we felt of our army then.

A thrill of pleasure ran through every soul, and we dreamed that victory would perch upon our banners.

THE EARTH QUAKES!
The very heavens above us are obscured from view. A dense, black column of smoke arises; the conflict has opened.

A rebel fort has been blown in pieces, a regiment of traitors hurried into eternity in a moment's time, and we are to follow up the advantage gained. A hundred and fifty Union cannon hail shell and grape into the ranks of the foe who are rushing in wild consternation from the works.

What a fearful thunder, and what a terrible concentration of iron, lead and fire, and yet men live. See how it tears, and sweeps and mows through human flesh and blood, dealing out death, destruction and slaughter with an unsparing hand. The awful, sickening sight gives us a sort of sadness; yet we know that unless we kill them, they will do their best to kill us, and to destroy the beloved fabric of liberty.

THE FIRST ASSAULT.
We hear a cheer. With eagerness we catch the sound. Thank God! it is not the low, savage howl of the rebels, but the full, honest, hearty cheer of the Union boys; and it tells us that they are making a charge. The rebels have rallied to their works again, and greet the assaulting column with a fearful fire. Great gaps, wide and deep, are cut in the ranks. They stagger for a moment, then close up like a flash; and on they press, mount the rebel works, and we behold half a dozen battle flags proudly floating from the ramparts.

THE 115TH GO FORWARD.
Now comes our turn. There is no need of calling us to attention, for every man is in his place.

Battalion right face--file left--march! commanded the colonel, and swiftly we move towards the front.

Suddenly our progress is impeded, and the road is blockaded with the flow of wounded who are being dragged to the rear. The sight of blood makes us shudder for an instant, for it flows as freely as water, and drips our path with crimson. A stretcher goes past with a wounded soldier who is soaking in his own life's blood. Another bears a man with his under jaw cut away, his tongue torn from its roots, and his head a shapeless mass. It was sickening even to us. A wounded captain is borne along, and he gives us a word of warning; "Go quick boys! its your only salvation!" How fast the shells go screaming over us, and how the grape tears up the ground. We reach our front, form line of battle, and then get orders to sit down.

A COLORED DIVISION
mount the works, and they too go forward on the charge.

We watch them eagerly; it is their first fight, and we wonder if they will stand the shock.

Noble fellows! grandly they cross the field; they are under a withering fire, but still rush on regardless of fallen comrades, and the storm of pitiless lead and relentless grape that pours upon them. Prisoners are taken, and are forced to run the fearful gauntlet of fire. A fellow comrade said he saw a colored soldier in an agony of frenzy, bayonet a rebel prisoner, and his own captain justly shot him dead. Others place wounded comrades in blankets and shelter tents, and compel the chivalry at the point of the bayonet to carry them from the field.

The colored troops are greatly elated at their success, and wildly mass and crowd together regardless of all order or position.

OUR GALLANT GENERAL
crosses the dread field alone, finds out where he wants the men to go, then rushes back, draws his sword, and glancing at his troops proudly says: "Come on my brave boys," and they did go on; some on to death, and some on to the rebel works.

THE 115TH LED THE CHARGE
and nobly followed their brave general. Lieutenant Francisco, Co. K, and Sergeant Fellows, the "iron hearted color sergeant," were among the first over the works.

The color bearer unfurls "the dear old flag," and with fire flashing from his eyes, tells the boys to come on; then calmly pointing to the works we were to carry, he flew away.

"Forward, hundred and fifteenth!" rang along the line. The regiment, and then the whole brigade sweep forward with a deafening yell.

Each one dreamed that he would stem the tide of battle, and that some other poor fellow would fall. We left the ground covered with killed and wounded. The grim banners of death floated here and there, yet the invincible columns pressed furiously on, and at last took the position by storm.

The colored troops hold the two first lines, and we, with colored troops hold the third.

The rebels are on the same line with us, on our right and left, and they engage us on either flank with infantry, at the same time sweeping our lines with a cross fire of grape.

Our men load and fire with desperation. They pour down upon he rebels in the hollow.

It must make their hair stand on end.

THE SLEEPING REGIMENT.
At the mined fort, amid gun carriages and timbers, lay the naked corpses of the South Carolinians blown up by the powder. Around the crater we see a large body of Union soldiers, lying as though in line of battle waiting for the command to move forward, and we suppose they are some regiment or brigade; but on going to the spot, what is our horror to find that they are all Union dead! There they lay both white and black, not singly or scattering, but in long rows; in whole companies. The ground is blue with Union dead. They all lay on their faces, calmly, peacably sleeping; while the battle rages all around, Jeff. Davis is reaping a rich harvest of dead.

THRILLING SCENES ON THE FIELD.
A discharge of grape tears through the men behind me, and five tumble over wounded. "Oh! Bill, I'm shot!" says one. Another limps towards the rear, but a cruel bullet lays him low. A third is lain gently on a rubber blanket, and two of his company carry him safely from the field of strife. The others remain and battle for the right.

Almon Stone is shot through the neck, but goes bravely through the fire.

Benjamin Thackarag is wounded in the thigh, but escapes capture by crawling through the woods.

A member of Co. C is shot through the mouth, and a stream of blood spouts out.

I can't begin to relate one of a thousand incidents.

THE REBELS CHARGE WITH SUCCESS.
But look! The rebels are forming on our front. They come towards us at an easy pace, and in a beautiful line. No arms are to be seen in their hands, and our officers with few exceptions, conclude that they are coming in as prisoners of war, and command the men to cease firing. Suddenly the sneaking rebels bring their guns in view, and give us a crushing volley. We give them a volley in return. The colored troops on our front for the same reason become panic stricken, and blindly hurl themselves back on our bayonets; and a wild scene of confusion ensues.

The mass of the Union army are swept back like a breath of air, and are cut up badly on the backward track. Company H with the colors, and a few of the regiment who had been able to stem the tide of confusion remained, and single handed and alone contested the ground.

The flag of the 115th still floated from the rebel works, and the brave boys surrounded it with a cordon of bayonets.

Captain Smith calmly tells the boys to fight as long as there is hope. The rebels swarm around the little band of heroes, and could snatch the colors but for the brave hearts and bright bayonets beneath its folds.

Colonel Sammons fears the flag may be lost, and rushes up to see about it, when a rebel takes deliberate aim and shoots him through the leg.

It is madness to remain longer, for if we stay, our little band will all be killed or captured. So back we go, and reach our line under a dreadful fire of lead. The rebels were sure of us; the Union army looking on think us lost; but a kind providence guides the most of the band over the dead and the dying and through the iron storm in safety.

Our flag is pierced with nine fresh wounds, and for the fourth time the staff is shot in pieces.

Our troops in the fort fare worse than we; for they are all killed, wounded or captured.

The sun pours down its scorching rays, and many are sun-struck and carried in wild delirium from the pits. All are exhausted and sink down almost helpless from the strain.

THE TERRIBLE CRY FOR WATER.
"Water! water! water!" groan the wounded. "Water! water!" fiercely gasp all the men. Oh heavens! what a thirst! A thousand soldiers crowd and swarm around a pool of dirty water, scoop up the precious beverage and pour it down their parched throats, as though it was the stream of life.

The wounded cry for water in vain. Poor fellows! they are only a few yards from us, but it is death to any man who undertakes their rescue, and none but God in heaven can save them.

Our coffee has arrived. We have eaten nothing since yesterday, are streaming with perspiration, and the coffee is very hot; yet how delicious, how delightful it is to taste it. Within a fort of dead men, and sitting over human blood and brains, yet all calmly sip their coffee.

THE DEAD AND THE DYING.
The soldiers who are badly wounded, lay exposed to the fire of friend and foe alike.

One moves painfully towards our works an inch at a time, but the heartless rebels give him a volley of bullets for his pains.

Another, unable to move, piteously begs to be saved, and motions to some friends imploringly with his hand. The brave fellows' hearts are melted with pity, and they risk their own lives and crawl out to get their comrade. After long and painful exertions their efforts are crowned with complete success; their friend is safe.

A heap of dead men lie beside us in the trenches; one shot through the right eye, and the blood trickling out; a second shot through the heart, and his clothes are bathed in blood; a third begrimed with power so that we cannot tell if he be white or black, is cut in halves. A grey-haired old man, bordering on three score years and ten, lies down the hill, his white locks red with blood.

The wounded are groaning, and some beg to be killed so as to be out of their misery, while nearly all desire to be carried to the hospital.

The band approach and throw dirt over the blood where we stand.

Captain Smith tells four of his men to take two mutilated dead men from under our feet, and they sadly obey, wondering whose loved ones they are taking out to decay.

Sergeant G------is overcome with heat, and is crazy. His eyes glare fearfully, and his eye-balls roll painfully in their sockets. "We'll fight 'em till we die, won't we boys?" he said, and then swooned away.

CLOSING SCENES OF THE BATTLE.
In the afternoon we are ordered further to the right, to relieve Barton's Brigade. We cross an open position of the works where a creek passes through, and every man is shot at.

A private of Co. F is mortally wounded. How deathly pale he looks.

A sergeant of the 48th N.Y. is shot dead, and his comrades take his watch and money from his pockets to send to his friends, and cover a blanket over the dead body to protect it from the sun, for no one gets buried now. Two stars are no better than two stripes at this time.

Lieut. G--------fired at a rebel, and in return received a bullet in the head, which left him delirious on the ground. "I'm shot! I'm shot!" he cried.

At last the order comes to relieve us. The right wing of the regiment hurry through a long ditch containing a great many dead bodies, and are free from fire. Free from fire! How good it sounds. The left wing had to remain that night.

Night closed the contest, and a dark funeral pall hung around. Tired and weary we sank to rest with the blue canopy of heaven for a covering. All hearts breathed a prayer to heaven for God's goodness.

No one desires to behold another such a day. No soldier is eager to rush to battle and to death for the mere glory of fighting, but do it from a sense of duty, or a stern necessity. A sane men cannot face death without thinking of his situation. A father thinks of his little children, a husband of his loving wife far away.

The bravest soldier on the battle field is he who counts the cost and realizes the misery of the awful work of slaughter--he whom in life is the most modest and unassuming.

The Union loss amounted to more than 5,000 in killed, wounded and missing; and the rebel loss was estimated at 4,000 men."

FortyRounder
09-10-2004, 09:41 PM
We hear a cheer. With eagerness we catch the sound. Thank God! it is not the low, savage howl of the rebels, but the full, honest, hearty cheer of the Union boys; and it tells us that they are making a charge. The rebels have rallied to their works again, and greet the assaulting column with a fearful fire. Great gaps, wide and deep, are cut in the ranks. They stagger for a moment, then close up like a flash; and on they press, mount the rebel works, and we behold half a dozen battle flags proudly floating from the ramparts.

This account provides evidence that, although the Heavies and the rest of the 1st Div. 9th Corps were battleworn and supposedly demoralized, they still had fighting spirit as they lead the assault on the Crater. (Another eyewitness claimed he heard their cheering from two miles away, over the artillery barrage.) Thank you very much for providing this source, Rebelboy.

Also, very sincere thanks to Dignann for mentioning the Samuel Hodgkins book. I was able to get my hands on a very rare and fragile copy through interlibrary loan.

For those who are interested, here is my bibliography so far for the 14th New York Heavy Artillery:

Published Works

Autobiography of Samuel Hodgkins, Born 1839: Including the Genealogy of His Immediate Ancestors. Compiled by Carrie E. Chatfield. Minneapolis: Privately printed, N. D.
Cavanaugh, Michael A., and William Marvel. The Petersburg Campaign: The Battle of the Crater: “The Horrid Pit”: June 25-August 6, 1864. Lynchburg, VA: H. E. Howard, 1989.
Clark, James H. The Iron Hearted Regiment: An Account of the Battles, Marches and Gallant Deeds Performed by the 115th Regiment N. Y. Vols. Albany: J. Munsell, 1865.
Cummings, Chas. L. The Great War Relic: Valuable as a Curiosity of the Rebellion. Harrisburg: Privately printed, N. D.
Greene, A. Wilson. Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion: The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign. Mason City, IA: Savas, 2000.

Houghton, Charles H. “In the Crater.” Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Vol. 4. Ed. Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel. New York: The Century, 1888. 561-562.
Howe, Thomas J. The Petersburg Campaign: Wasted Valor: June 15-18, 1864. Lynchburg, VA: H. E. Howard, 1988.
Kilmer, George L. “The Dash into the Crater.” Century Magazine September, 1887: 775-776.
—. “Gordon’s Attack at Fort Stedman.” Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Vol. 4. Ed. Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel. New York: The Century, 1888. 579-583.
LoPiano, Tom. “Gallantry in the Crater.” Arms Gazette July, 1979: 16-48.
Powell, William H. “The Battle of the Petersburg Crater.” Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Vol. 4. Ed. Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel. New York: The Century, 1888. 548-560.
Reitmeyer, Chas. K. “Chief Silverheel’s Capture.” Warren Mail (State?) August 23, 1887: 1.
Rhea, Gordon C. The Battle of Cold Harbor: Grant and Lee, May 26-June 3, 1864. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 2002.
—. The Battles for Spotsylvania and the Road to Yellow Tavern: May 7-12, 1864. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1997.
—. The Battle of the Wilderness: May 5-6, 1864. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1994.
—. To the North Anna River: Grant and Lee, May 13-25, 1864. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 2000.
Shaw, Charles A. A History of the 14th Regiment N. Y. Heavy Artillery in the Civil War from 1863 to 1865. Mount Kisco, NY: North Westchester, 1918.
Ward, George W. History of the Second Pennsylvania Veteran Heavy Artillery (112th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers) from 1861 to 1865, including the Provisional Second Penn’a. Heavy Artillery. Philadelphia: George W. Ward, 1904.
Wentz, A. “Closing Days of the War.” Part 1. National Tribune January 28, 1904.
—. Part 2. National Tribune February 4, 1904.
—. Part 3. National Tribune February 11, 1904.
Wilkinson, Warren. Mother, May You Never See the Sights I Have Seen: The Fifty-seventh Massachusetts Veteran Volunteers in the Last Year of the Civil War. New York: Harper and Row,1990.
Wilson, Clarence. “The Petersburg Mine.” National Tribune July 3, 1919.
—. “At Cold Harbor.” National Tribune August 17, 1893.
Woodbury, Augustus. Major General Ambrose E. Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps. Providence: Sidney S. Rider and Brother, 1867.

Manuscripts

Andersonville, GA: Andersonville National Historic Site
Henderson, Samuel. Transcript of diary, April 9, 1864-September 3, 1865.
Fredericksburg, VA: Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park
McLean, Robert. Memoirs, October 11, 1922.